An introduction to the issue of ebola
Many ecologic investigations have been made in connection with other viruses [ 67 ]; it is not known if the methods used would have detected Ebola virus, although EBO-Z is lethal in the most commonly used assay system, the suckling mouse [ 68 ].
Nonhuman primate studies [ 66 ] found conjunctival and oral routes of infection to be possible. In the Kikwit outbreak, almost 5 months passed from the beginning of the outbreak until the first samples were obtained.
Such tests could be devised on the basis of antigen detection on paper strips [ 2727a ], but the logistics of production, distribution, quality control, and shelf-life considerations are formidable.
Introduction of ebola virus essay
This team may have to wait 20 years for the next epidemic; however, its chance to respond may come much sooner. This product has been confirmed to be efficacious in guinea pigs, but it is not as useful in rhesus monkeys or the mouse model of Ebola virus infection [ 86 , 87 ]. Discussion of Investigational Information: As part of the journal, faculty may be presenting investigational information about pharmaceutical products that is outside Food and Drug Administration approved labeling. This translated to sluggish responses to the outbreak in these regions. He rode his bicycle through the savanna to an area of secondary forest, where he had exposure to tree-top, ground-level, and burrowing species of plants and animals. Date of most recent review: June 15, Wallihan, Dr.
We do not know if Ebola virus transmission would have continued indefinitely, burrowed into the massof people in the city, if measures to begin hospital use had not succeeded.
What then were the major routes of transmission? Extensive infection and co-localized necrosis were found in parenchymal cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells of many organs [ 5384 ].
The implicated index case [ 69 ] was a charcoal maker who lived in the city of Kikwit. Whether this hiatus after —, which was followed by renewed human transmission, reflects actual Ebola virus activity or rather publicity combined with fortuitous entry of the virus into medical facilities leading to recognition is unknown; we believe the renewed quiescence of reported Ebola activity since argues for the former. Late in the epidemic, this fact motivated a clinical experience with blood transfusions from survivors [ 47 ]. Much of the information concerning these outbreaks has been previously summarized [ 13 ]. This team may have to wait 20 years for the next epidemic; however, its chance to respond may come much sooner. EBO-Z was also circulating in Gabon [ 34 ], and at least 3 separate outbreaks in humans and nonhuman primates occurred [ 3 ]. Dulaurier, Dr. Over the course of 2 days of presentations and discussions, workshop participants explored the epidemic from multiple perspectives, identified important questions about Ebola that remained unanswered, and sought to apply this understanding to the broad challenges posed by Ebola and other emerging pathogens, to prevent the international community from being taken by surprise once again in the face of these threats. It seems likely that the increased risk from late-stage patients [ 54 ] reflects increased virus excretion as the disease progresses, similar to that seen in monkey models [ 50 ]. It would seem that laboratory capability for diagnosing common diseases, such as shigellosis or typhoid, would be much more practical as a first step. By July, the virus had been imported to Nigeria. Thus, Gabon may well provide another site where the search for risk factors of human infection and the natural reservoir could be carried out. The Guinean Ministry of Health issued its first alert regarding the mysterious, deadly disease on March 13, the same day the World Health Organization's WHO's regional office mobilized in response to the disease, which they suspected to be Lassa fever.
The only testicle examined from a fatal case showed clear-cut viral invasion [ 53 ]. There are several hypotheses concerning the most likely reservoirs for filoviruses [ 73 ], but each of these involves implicit assumptions about the nature of the reservoir [ 74 ].
On March 22, Ebola-Zaire was determined to be the causative agent through diagnostic testing performed on a sample sent to a biosafety level-4 BSL-4 laboratory in Lyon, France Baize et al. The major questions are tied to important issues in biology.
Finally, we thank the editorial board and the staff of the Journal of Infectious Diseases, especially Donna Mirkes and Claudia Chesley, for their patience and hard work.
Determine appropriate management through evidence-based use of diagnostic testing. Thus, Gabon may well provide another site where the search for risk factors of human infection and the natural reservoir could be carried out. However, this is far from saying that Ebola viruses are transmitted in the clinical setting by small-particle aerosols generated from an index patient [ 64 ]. We do not know if Ebola virus transmission would have continued indefinitely, burrowed into the massof people in the city, if measures to begin hospital use had not succeeded. Much of the information concerning these outbreaks has been previously summarized [ 13 ]. What are the variations in clinical pathology findings? One of the study group scientists became infected and was transferred to Basel, Switzerland, for definitive care [ 31 ].
Target Audience: This enduring material is designed for emergency medicine physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and residents. Epidemiologic studies that were conducted in connection with both epidemics [ 1920 ] successfully traced the virus introductions to one Philippine exporter but failed to detect the actual source of the virus.
An introduction to the issue of ebola
The only testicle examined from a fatal case showed clear-cut viral invasion [ 53 ]. It would seem that laboratory capability for diagnosing common diseases, such as shigellosis or typhoid, would be much more practical as a first step. International scientific teams that arrived to deal with these highly virulent epidemics found that transmission had largely ceased; however, they could reconstruct considerable data from the survivors. If therapeutic studies are undertaken in patients in the future, it will be important to have randomized control serial laboratory samples and some consideration given to the potential immunostimulatory effects of allogeneic lymphocytes. Ecology and natural history The epidemic also provided an opportunity to search for the elusive reservoir of Ebola virus in connection with an acute outbreak. The finding of copious amounts of Ebola virus antigen in skin opened the way to confirm cases by taking simple skin biopsies, which could be placed in formalin and analyzed later by immunohistochemistry [ 53 , 92 ]. Thus, although the question is not settled, persistence of virus or viral antigen or genomes for weeks into convalescence seems common, but long-term infection is apparently not likely.
These cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several forms of shock and cause specific defects in vascular permeability in filovirus infections studied in vitro [ 83 ].
based on 31 review